Refugee and migrant children crisis
Around the world, nearly 50 million children have become refugees or migrants after fleeing their homes to escape conflicts and natural disasters – others have migrated in the hope to find a better life. You can help children in crisis through UNICEF.

The world is facing a lost generation with the largest number of refugees and internally displaced people since World War II. Millions of children and adolescents are spending their entire young lives on the move, driven from their homes because of situations of conflict, natural disasters and humanitarian emergencies. Children do not bear any responsibility for the bombs and bullets, the gang violence, persecution, the shriveled crops and low family wages driving them from their homes. But they are the first to be affected by war, conflict, climate change and poverty.

No matter where they come from, wherever they are, children are children and they need protection

Donate now to support UNICEF’s action for child refugees and migrants.

Nearly 1 in 200 children is a refugee


Millions of children migrate safely, for educational and employment opportunities, in search of a better life.

But millions more have had to flee, or have been uprooted from their homes by violence, war, poverty, persecution, exclusion, and the effects of climate change.

Around the world, nearly 50 million children have been forced from their homes. More than half of these girls and boys fled violence and instability. That’s equal to three quarters of Canada’s population. Every last one of them is seeking a different life than the one they left behind. Like every child, they just want to be safe and happy.

These children may be refugees, internally displaced or migrants. But first and foremost, they are children - no matter where they come from, who they are, and without exception.

Refugee, migrant, displaced – who are the children uprooted

Top 5 refugee-hosting countries in 2018

Migrant: A person who is moving or has moved across an international border or within a home country regardless of whether the move is voluntary or involuntary and regardless of the length of stay.

Refugee: A person who lives outside the country of nationality and is unable to return because of persecution or fear of persecution based on race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.

Asylum seeker: A person who seeks refuge in a country to which they have fled because of persecution.

Internally displaced persons: People who fled their homes – but not their countries – because of armed conflict, violence, disaster or a violation of human rights.

Uprooted: A general, non-legal term used by UNICEF for people who have left their place of origin for any reason. They may be migrants, refugees or internally displaced.

Struggle continues for Rohingya children

More than 391,000 Rohingya refugee girls and boys have escaped violence and persecution in neighboring Myanmar and found refuge in Bangladesh. Malnutrition, illness and lack of clean water, are just some of the issues they face in the camps.

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5 quick facts about uprooted children

  • 50% of refugee children worldwide are not in school.
  • Two-thirds of all refugees worldwide come from just 5 countries: Syria, Afghanistan, South Sudan, Myanmar and Somalia.
  • Conflict displaces even more people within their own borders than beyond them.
  • Some of the main reasons forcing IDPs to leave their homes are armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters.
  • In 2017, an estimated 16.2 million people were newly displaced, including 11.8 million displaced within the borders of their own countries.

Children forced to flee their home seek safety anywhere they can find it - in nearby towns, schools, settlements, internal camps, even forests and fields. On the run, they can face tremendous danger while seeking security abroad or within their own country. Uprooted children face violence, exploitation, disrupted social services and education, and separation from their families. The longer displacements linger, the more lasting their negative effects can be.

Children impacted by crisis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

In Kasai, one of the poorest regions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the crisis has had a devastating effect on children. Hundreds of thousands of people have fled their homes. They have spent months deprived of healthcare, water and sanitation, a balanced diet and access to school.

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Root causes of migrations – why children flee their homes

Every year, in every part of the world, children and families make the decision - sometimes freely and sometimes under duress - to move. These decisions are influenced by a wide range of factors about their present conditions and their future aspirations.

Difficult conditions at home - conflict, poverty, violence, natural disasters, unemployment, discrimination and more - often weigh heavily in the decision to move.

Brighter prospects in other countries – security, family reunification, education, higher standards of living and jobs – also shape decisions about where and when families migrate.

Children and families rarely make the decision to move for just one reason. Many factors are usually involved and the importance of any given factor may change over time.

Gang violence in Central America

The story of Erica: the 38-year old mother of two daughters, ages 16 and 19, is afraid the gangs will come after her and her daughters next. Gang violence took the lives of one of her closest friends in 2013 and her older brother in 2015. Then, just a few weeks ago, her 18-year-old nephew was killed. Pervasive violence and poverty in Central America drive children and their families to migrate in search of safety and a better life.

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Driven from their homes by conflicts they didn’t create, children face dangers like trafficking, kidnapping, the risk of drowning on sea crossings, malnourishment, sexual violence and even murder. Children, particularly those who travel on their own or become separated from their families, are at risk of many forms of violence and exploitation throughout their journeys. For some, those dangers persist even after they have reached their destinations. Refugee and migrant children disproportionately face poverty and exclusion when they reach destination countries.

Read the story of these 7 Gambian boys who became friends despite their harrowing journey.

Children need protection

Violence linked to Boko Haram in the Lake Chad region - Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger - has led to widespread displacement; over 1.3 million children are on the move. Watch the journey of this family as they struggle to find safety.

1 in 3 children are out of school in countries affected by war or natural disasters

Education can make or break the futures of children and young people. For those living in countries affected by protracted conflicts and complex humanitarian emergencies, quality education is especially critical. Education provides children with the stability and structure they need to cope with the trauma they have experienced. And it equips them with the knowledge and skills they need to help rebuild their country once the conflict or disaster is over.

Education provides children and young people with the skills they need to contribute to their countries and economies, and hope for a better future. Without investment for education in emergencies, the world could face losing an entire generation of children living in countries affected by conflict and disaster.

A dangerous journey to school for children in Yemen

In Yemen, the journey to school has become dangerous as children risk being killed en route. Fearing for their children’s safety, many parents choose to keep their children at home. Read more on the impact of war in Yemen for children’s education?

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