June 12 is recognized globally as the World Day Against Child Labour. By definition, child labour is “work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development.”
Causes of child labour include poverty, barriers to education, cultural practices, market demand, and the inadequate/poor enforcement of legislation and policies to protect children. The effects of child labour deprive children of their right to education, expose them to violence and reinforce intergenerational cycles of poverty. It has to stop.
In 2020, the fight against child labour is perhaps more important than ever. In just a matter of weeks, the COVID-19 pandemic has had drastic consequences for children; access to education, food, and health services has been dramatically affected across the globe.
In discussions of the pandemic to date, child labour has played only a marginal role. Yet, it is anticipated that child labour will be an important coping mechanism for poor households experiencing COVID-related shocks.
As global poverty rises, so too will the prevalence of child labour. Increased parental mortality due to COVID-19 will force children into child labour, including the worst forms such as work that harms the health and safety of children. Temporary school closures may have permanent implications for the poorest and most vulnerable.
Read on to learn more about child labour – and how you can help protect children’s rights.
1. 152 million children are engaged in child labour
The International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that worldwide approximately 218 million children between 5 and 17 years are engaged in some form of employment. Among them, 152 million are victims of child labour; almost half of this figure - 73 million - work in hazardous child labour conditions – working in mines, with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture, or with dangerous machinery.
58% of all children in child labour and 62% of all children in hazardous work are boys. Boys appear to face a greater risk of child labour than girls, but this may also be a reflection of an under-reporting of girls’ work, particularly in domestic child labour.
2. Slavery is still a threat to children
Slavery and bonded labour are some of the worst forms of child labour. Tens of thousands of children have been forced to serve as soldiers and work in military groups and militias in at least 17 countries in different regions around the world, while others have been forced into commercial sexual exploitation or made to engage in illicit activities such as the drug trade.
3. Children caught in emergencies are exploited
Child labour exists on almost every continent. Almost half of all child labour (72.1 million children) is found in Africa; 62.1 million children ate engaged in child labour in the Asia and the Pacific; 10.7 million children in the Americas; 1.2 million children in the Middle East and 5.5 million children in Europe and Central Asia, according to the ILO.
In times of emergency or crisis, children are also at significant risk of being exploited. It's been reported that Syrian refugee children have been forced to work in companies and on farms in Jordan and in garment factories in Turkey as their families struggle to make ends meet.
4. Child labour is on the decline
Child labour is preventable, not inevitable, and the number of children engaged in child labour has declined from an estimated 264 million children in 2012 to an estimated 218 million children in 2016. UNICEF works with governments, businesses, civil society, and communities to strengthen education and child protection systems to improve access to quality of education and eliminate child labour. Ultimately, we need to tackle the problem at its source.
5. Education can break the cycle of poverty
Providing safe, accessible and high-quality education encourages families to send working children to school. However, education programs for working children must acknowledge that these children often provide essential income for their families. Classes that are designed around the schedules of working children or that provide stipends to families for lost income, help children pursue learning without jeopardizing the financial security of the family.
6. The world is committed to ending child labour by 2025
In 2015, UN member states adopted 17 Global Goals for sustainable development, including goal 8.7 to end all forms of forced labour, modern slavery and child labour by 2025. Eliminating child labour will help address poverty, strengthen economies and positively influence education, health and protection systems worldwide.
7. Canada has joined the fight against child labour
Canada has ratified the ILO’s Minimum Age Convention (ILO 138) to set the minimum age for work at 15 and prohibit hazardous work for young workers. This marks an important step in Canadian efforts to eliminate child labour, prioritize education and ensure appropriate employment for young people. Canada’s young people also have the right to protection from work that is unsafe or interferes with school, rest and healthy development while balancing the benefits of work.
8. Communities can make a difference
Child labour starts and ends in communities. UNICEF supports communities in changing their cultural acceptance of child labour, while supporting strategies and programming to provide alternative income to families, access to child care, quality education, and protective services.
9. Companies can make a difference
The private sector has a crucial role to play in eliminating child labour, which includes establishing legal supply chains and business practices, providing decent work for young workers and ensuring the protection and safety of children. Companies can adopt the Children’s Rights and Business Principles to respect and support children's rights.
10. You can make a difference
There are many ways for you to join the fight against child labour – from becoming an ethical consumer to helping to send children to school and supporting UNICEF to tackle the issue at its source. Every child deserves the right to a childhood - no exceptions.